[44] Shortly thereafter, his department was converted into a district of the Department of Tennessee under Gen. Bragg and was designated the Third Corps of the Army of Tennessee. Gen. Gideon Johnson Pillow, against the right flank of Grant's army. Seeing the hopeless situation he was in, Wilder informed Buckner that he wanted to surrender. The Union was now poised to seize Fort Donelson and its river batteries when light returned the next morning. 231–35; Woodworth, pp. [6] Buckner attended school in Greenville, and later at Christian County Seminary in Hopkinsville. [82], At the 1896 Democratic National Convention in Chicago, the Democrats nominated William Jennings Bryan for president and adopted a platform calling for the free coinage of silver. McClernand grumbled "This army wants a head." At dawn on February 15, the Confederates launched an assault led by Pillow against McClernand's division on the unprotected right flank of the Union line. Though this essentially ended the feud, the violence had been so bad that Buckner's adjutant general recommended that the Kentucky General Assembly dissolve Rowan County, though this suggestion was not acted upon. All Confederate property was to be turned over to the Union. Stickles, pp. Date: February 12-16, 1862. The company joined John E. Wool at Saltillo. [57], Federal Penetration up the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers, Preliminary movements and attacks (February 12–13), Reinforcements and naval battle (February 14). He returned to his native state of Kentucky in 1857 and was appointed adjutant general by Governor Beriah Magoffin in 1861. [41], Battle of Perryville: Actions in Buckner's sector (~ 3:45 p.m.), Based on intelligence acquired by a spy in Buell's army, Buckner advised Bragg that Buell was still ten miles from Louisville in the town of Mackville. McClernand's division made up the right of Grant's army with C.F. The outer works were bounded by Hickman Creek to the west, Lick Creek to the east, and the Cumberland River to the north. The Battle of Fort Donelson was fought from February 11–16, 1862, in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. [39], Days after Buckner joined Bragg, both Bragg and Maj. Gen. Edmund Kirby Smith began an invasion of Kentucky. As governor, Buckner became known for vetoing special interest legislation. "[40], Despite the successful morning attack, access to an open escape route, and to the amazement of Floyd and Buckner, Pillow ordered his men back to their trenches by 1:30 p.m. Buckner confronted Pillow, and Floyd intended to countermand the order, but Pillow argued that his men needed to regroup and resupply before evacuating the fort. Two years after Fort Donelson, Grant was preparing to assume the title of Lieutenant General, a rank previously held only by George Washington. Because they had served on opposite sides during the Civil War, their presence on the same ticket emphasized national unity. The night progressed with both sides fighting the cold weather. Grant's brusque reply became one of the most famous quotes of the war, earning him the nickname of "Unconditional Surrender":[49]. Further, some supporters feared that voting for the National Democrat ticket would be a wasted vote and might even throw the election to Bryan. He was the Gold Democrats' candidate for Vice President of the United States in the 1896 election, but polled just over one percent of the vote on a ticket with John M. Palmer. Six years after Fort Donelson, Ulysses S. Grant had been elected the 18th President of the United States. [21] He was appointed inspector general of Kentucky in 1860. Grant moved his army (later to become the Union's Army of the Tennessee[4]) 12 miles (19 km) overland to Fort Donelson, from February 11 to 13, and conducted several small probing attacks. Pillow immediately declined and passed command to Buckner, who agreed to stay behind and surrender. [50] Buckner was briefly given command of Maj. Gen. John Bell Hood's division in February 1864, and on March 8, he was given command of the reestablished Department of East Tennessee. "The Correspondence of Generals Grant and Buckner at Fort Donelson, Illustrated"" "The Correspondence of Generals Grant and Buckner at Fort Donelson, Illustrated" Smith's two-brigade attack quickly seized the outer line of entrenchments on the Confederate right from the 30th Tennessee, commanded by Col. John W. Head, who had been left behind from Buckner's division. I propose to move immediately upon your works. Close to a third of all of Albert Sidney Johnston's forces were now prisoners. An alternative might have been to overrun the batteries, probably at night as would be done successfully in the 1863 Vicksburg Campaign. The Union's success also elevated Brig. Grant's answer was short and direct: "No terms except an unconditional and immediate surrender can be accepted." The Confederates responded with shots from their long-range guns and eventually hit the gunboat. Nevin, p. 96; Gott, pp. At dawn the following morning, Pillow launched a strong assault against the right flank of Grant's army, pushing it back 1 to 2 miles (2 to 3 km). 219–28, 339; McDonough, pp. Grant left orders that none of his generals was to initiate an engagement and no one was designated as second-in-command during his absence. His administration was rocked by scandal when state treasurer James "Honest Dick" Tate absconded with $250,000 from the state's treasury. The ticket was endorsed by several major newspapers including the Chicago Chronicle, Louisville Courier-Journal, Detroit Free Press, Richmond Times, and New Orleans Picayune. Forrest's troops, sent out by Buckner, spotted a detachment from McClernand's division and opened fir… On February 13, 1862, the battery assisted in the repulse of an attack made by a portion of General Smith's division against the right of the intrenchments. 111–13; Eicher, p. 178; Cooling. Some wounded men caught between the lines burned to death in grass fires ignited by the artillery. The success elevated Brig. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant captured Fort Henry on the Tennessee River in February 1862, he turned his sights on nearby Fort Donelson on the Cumberland. Süden in Tennessee Pushing mit Hilfe von Flaggoffizier Andrew Footes Kanonenboote, Union Truppen unter Brigadier General Ulysses S. Grant gefangen Fort Henry am 6. John M. Thayer and Charles Cruft, and occupied the center of the line facing the Confederate trenches. General Floyd's Report. 237–40; Woodworth, p. 115; Eicher, p. 178; Cooling. But Grant was not Beauregard. [3], Cannons were fired and church bells rung throughout the North at the news. [30], Despite their unexpected naval success, the Confederate generals were still skeptical about their chances in the fort and held another late-night council of war, where they decided to retry their aborted escape plan. Though he always claimed membership in the Democratic party, he opposed the machine politics of William Goebel, his party's gubernatorial nominee in 1899. Wallace, who was hesitant to disobey orders, sent an aide to Grant's headquarters for further instructions. [22][23] The state was torn between Union and Confederacy, with the legislature supporting the former and the governor the latter. [23], With Floyd's arrival to take command of Fort Donelson, Pillow took over leading the Confederate left. Grant first visited C. F. Smith on the Union left, where Grant ordered the 8th Missouri and the 11th Indiana to the Union right,[17] then rode 7 miles (11 km) over icy roads to find McClernand and Wallace. The whole army is in danger! Smith, the 8th Missouri, and the 11th Indiana advanced a short distance up the hill using Zouave tactics, where the men repeatedly rushed and then fell to the ground in a prone position. 284–88. Buckner also turned over considerable military equipment and provisions, which Grant's troops badly needed. Wallace assembled these new troops into a third division of two brigades, under Cols. I propose to move immediately upon your works. Die Einnahme Fort Donelsons öffnete den Cumberland als Einfallsroute der Union für eine Invasion des Südens und zwang die Konföderierten, Teile von Tennessee und Kentucky aufzugeben, darunter auch die Hauptstadt Nashville. Buckner then asked Leonidas Polk to request that Bragg concentrate his forces and attack the Union army at Perryville, but again, Bragg refused. Buckner married Mary Jane Kingsbury on May 2, 1850, at her aunt's home in Old Lyme, Connecticut. 86–87; Gott, pp. Buckner, not confident of his army's chances and not on good terms with Pillow, held back his supporting attack for over two hours, which gave Grant's men time to bring up reinforcements and reform their line. After joining the army, Buckner was sent by General Albert Sidney Johnston to be one of the brigadier generals in charge of defending Fort Donelson, an important fortification built along the Cumberland River. McClernand's right flank, which faced Pillow, had insufficient men to reach overflowing Lick Creek, so it was left unanchored. [21], On February 13, several small probing attacks were carried out against the Confederate defenses, essentially ignoring orders from Grant that no general engagement be provoked. 165–66; Cooling. [11], On August 8, 1847, Buckner was appointed quartermaster of the 6th Infantry. Gott, pp. [25] After Confederate Maj. Gen. Leonidas Polk occupied Columbus, Kentucky, violating the state's neutrality, Buckner accepted a commission as a brigadier general in the Confederate States Army on September 14, 1861, and was followed by many of the men he formerly commanded in the state militia. The surrender became official when Smith endorsed it on June 2, (Only Brigadier General Stand Watie held out longer, he surrendered the last Confederate land forces on June 23, 1865). [52] Buckner was virtually useless to the Confederacy here, and on April 28, he was ordered to join Edmund Kirby Smith in the Trans-Mississippi Department of the Confederacy. [42], Following the Battle of Perryville, Buckner was reassigned to command the District of the Gulf, fortifying the defenses of Mobile, Alabama. Although rightfully in command of two of the three regiments, Morrison volunteered to turn over command once the attack was under way; however, when the attack began, Morrison was wounded, eliminating any leadership ambiguity. [22], General Grant had Commander Henry Walke bring the Carondelet up the Cumberland River to create a diversion by opening fire on the fort. Johnston evacuated Nashville on February 23, surrendering this important industrial center to the Union and making it the first Confederate state capital to fall. On February 16, 1862, General Buckner surrendered Fort Donelson. Grant was aware Buckner was in Fort Donelson, but he was not likely to know that Buckner was now in command of the fort. [12], Buckner was again cited for gallant conduct at the Battle of Molino del Rey, and was appointed a brevet captain. Flattered, Buckner showed Wilder the strength and position of the Confederate forces, which outnumbered Wilder's men almost 5-to-1. Shortly after Buckner arrived at Smith's headquarters in Shreveport, Louisiana, Smith began requesting a promotion for him. 14. Informed that the letter was a proposal for sur-render, Lauman quickly sent it on to General Smith, who in turn carried the letter to Grant.2 Walking into Grant's headquarters at Mrs. Floyd was furious at this change of plans, but by then it was too late in the day to proceed. Nevin, p. 93; Gott, pp. General Simon Bolivar Buckner Simon Bolivar Buckner, (* 1. In the 1888 legislative session alone, he issued more vetoes than the previous ten governors combined. [20], In late 1857, Buckner and his family returned to his native state and settled in Louisville. Lauman's brigade would be the main attack, spearheaded by Col. James Tuttle's 2nd Iowa Infantry. Troops were moved behind the lines and the assault readied, but at the last minute a Union sharpshooter killed one of Pillow's aides. Feeling overwhelmed, Floyd left most of the actual command to Pillow and Buckner. Buckner joined many of his fellow generals in publicly denouncing Bragg's performance during the campaign. This led the state to declare itself officially neutral. By September 17, however, Wilder recognized his difficult position and asked Bragg for proof of the superior numbers he claimed. (The second was John C. Pemberton's at the Siege of Vicksburg and the third Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia at Appomattox). Johnston was apprehensive about the ease with which Union gunboats defeated Fort Henry (not comprehending that the rising waters of the Tennessee River played a crucial role by inundating the fort). "Simon Bolivar Buckner". The surrender was a humiliation for Buckner personally, but also a strategic defeat for the Confederacy, which lost more than 12,000 men and much equipment, as well as control of the Cumberland River, which led to the evacuation of Nashville. Grant was dismayed at the confusion and a lack of organized leadership. [46], Inexplicably, generals Floyd and Pillow were upbeat about the day's performance and wired General Johnston at Nashville that they had won a great victory. Grant replied, "It seems so. Early in the morning of February 11, Grant held a council of war in which all of his generals supported his plans for an attack on Fort Donelson, with the exception of Brig. Finally, on October 8, 1862, Bragg's army—not yet concentrated with Kirby Smith's—engaged Maj. Gen. Alexander McCook's corps of Buell's army and began the Battle of Perryville. [75] State auditor Fayette Hewitt was censured for neglecting the duty of his office, but was not implicated in Tate's theft or disappearance. View stories about Simon B Buckner at Fold3.com." Grants Operationen gegen Fort Donelson dauerte von 11 bis 16 Februar 1862. Gen. William J. Hardee and was stationed in Bowling Green, Kentucky. Union losses were 2,691 (507 killed, 1,976 wounded, 208 captured/missing), Confederate 13,846 (327 killed, 1,127 wounded, 12,392 captured/missing). 258–61; Connelly. [78], After his term as governor, Buckner returned to Glen Lily. He participated in Braxton Bragg's failed invasion of Kentucky and near the end of the war became chief of staff to Edmund Kirby Smith in the Trans-Mississippi Department. Location: Fort Donelson The official results of the election gave Buckner a plurality of 16,797 over Bradley. His term was plagued by violent feuds in the eastern part of the state, including the Hatfield–McCoy feud and the Rowan County War. [37], The Confederate offensive ended around 12:30 p.m., when Wallace's and Thayer's Union troops formed a defensive line on a ridge astride Wynn's Ferry Road. 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